Suttantapiṭake
Aṅguttaranikāyo
Dutiyo bhāgo
Catukkanipāto

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa.

1. Paṭhamo paṇṇāsako

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4. Cakkavaggo.

4. 1. 4. 1

( Cakkasuttaṃ )

( Sāvatthinidānaṃ:)

31. [PTS Page 032] [\q 32/] cattārimāni bhikkhave cakkāni yehi samannāgatānaṃ devamanussānaṃ catucakkaṃ vattati, yehi samannāgatā devamanussā nacirasseva mahantattaṃ vepullattaṃ pāpuṇanti bhogesu.

Katamāni cattāri? Patirūpadesavāso, sappurisupassayo, attasammāpaṇidhi, pubbe ca katapuññatā.

Imāni kho bhikkhave cattāri cakkāni, yehi samannāgatānaṃ devamanussānaṃ catucakkaṃ vattati, yehi samannāgatā devamanussā na cirasseva mahantattaṃ vepullattaṃ pāpuṇanti bhogesūti.

72. Patirūpe (1) vase dese ariyacittakaro (2) siyā,
Sammāpaṇidhisampanno pubbe puññakato naro,
Dhaññaṃ dhanaṃ yaso kitti sukhaṃ cetādhivattatīti.
(3)

4. 1. 4. 2

( Saṅgahavatthusuttaṃ )

32. Cattārimāni bhikkhave saṅgahavatthūni.

Katamāni cattāri?

Dānaṃ, peyyavajjaṃ,(4) atthacariyā, samānattatā. (5)
Imāni kho bhikkhave cattāri saṅgahavatthūnīti.

73. Dānaṃ ca peyyavajjañca atthacariyā ca(6) yā idha,
Samānattatā ca dhammesu
(7) tattha tattha yathārahaṃ,
Ete kho saṅgahā loke rathassāṇīva
(8) yāyato.

74. Ete ca saṅgahā nāssu(9) na mātā puttakāraṇā,
Labhetha mānaṃ pūjaṃ vā pitā vā puttakāraṇā.

75. Yasmā ca saṅgahā(10) ete samavekkhanti paṇḍitā,
Tasmā mahattaṃ
(11) papponti pāsaṃsā ca bhavanti te'ti.

4. 1. 4. 3.

(Sīhasuttaṃ)

[PTS Page 33] [\q 33/]

33. Sīho bhikkhave migarājā sāyanhasamayaṃ āsayā nikkhamati. Āsayā nikkhamitvā vijambhati. Vijambhitvā samantā catuddisā anuviloketi. Samantā catuddisā anuviloketvā tikkhattuṃ sīhanādaṃ nadati. Tikkhattuṃ sīhanādaṃ naditvā gocarāya pakkamati. Ye kho pana te bhikkhave tiracchānagatā pāṇā sīhassa migarañño nadato saddaṃ suṇanti, te yebhuyyena bhayaṃ saṃvegaṃ santāsaṃ āpajjanti. Bilaṃ

Bilāsayā pavisanti. Dakaṃ dakāsayā(12) pavisanti. Vanaṃ vanāsayā pavisanti. Ākāsaṃ pakkhino(13) bhajanti.

[BJT Page 068] [\x 68/]

Yepi te bhikkhave rañño nāgā gāmanigamarājadhānīsu daḷhehi varattehi bandhanehi baddhā,(14) tepi tāni bandhanāni sañchinditvā(15) sampadāḷetvā bhītā muttakarīsaṃ cajamānā yena vā tena vā palāyanti. Evaṃ mahiddhiyo kho bhikkhave sīho migarājā tiracchānagatānaṃ pāṇānaṃ evaṃ mahesakkho evaṃ mahānubhāvo.

Evameva kho bhikkhave yadā tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathī satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā. So dhammaṃ deseti: 'iti sakkāyo, iti sakkāyasamudayo, iti sakkāya nirodho, iti sakkāyanirodhagāminī paṭipadā'ti.

Yepi te bhikkhave devā dīghāyukā vaṇṇavanto sukhabahulā(16) uccesu vimānesu ciraṭṭhitikā, tepi tathāgatassa dhammadesanaṃ sutvā yebhuyyena bhayaṃ saṃvegaṃ santāsaṃ āpajjanti.

Aniccā vata kira bho mayaṃ samānā niccamhā'ti amaññimha. Addhuvā vata kira(17) bho mayaṃ samānā dhuvamhā'ti amaññimha. Asassatā vata kira bho mayaṃ samānā sassatamhā'ti amaññimha.(18) Mayampi(19) kira bho aniccā addhuvā asassatā sakkāyapariyāpannā'ti.

Evaṃ mahiddhiyo kho bhikkhave tathāgato sadevakassa lokassa. Evaṃ mahesakkho evaṃ mahānubhāvoti.

[PTS Page 034] [\q 34/]

76. yadā buddho abhiññāya dhammacakkaṃ pavattayi,
Sadevakassa lokassa satthā appaṭipuggalo.

77. Sakkāyañca nirodhañca sakkāyassa ca sambhavaṃ,
Ariyaṃ caṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ dukkhūpasamagāminaṃ.

78. Yepi dīghāyukā devā vaṇṇavanto yasassino,
Bhītā santāsamāpāduṃ sīhassevitare migā.

79. Avītivattā sakkāyaṃ(20) aniccā kira bho mayaṃ,
Sutvā arahato vākyaṃ vippamuttassa tādino'ti.
(21)

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4. 1. 4. 4

( Aggappasādasuttaṃ )

34. Cattāro'me bhikkhave aggappasādā. Katame cattāro?

Yāvatā bhikkhave sattā apadā vā dipadā vā catuppadā vā bahuppadā vā rūpino vā arūpino vā saññino vā asaññino vā nevasaññīnāsaññino(22) vā, tathāgato tesaṃ aggamakkhāyati arahaṃ sammāsambuddho. Ye bhikkhave buddhe pasannā, agge te pasannā, agge kho pana pasannānaṃ aggo vipāko hoti.

Yāvatā bhikkhave dhammā saṅkhatā, (23) ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo tesaṃ aggamakkhāyati. Ye bhikkhave ariye aṭṭhaṅgike magge pasannā, agge te pasannā. Agge kho pana pasannānaṃ aggo vipāko hoti.

Yāvatā bhikkhave dhammā saṅkhatā vā asaṅkhatā vā, virāgo tesaṃ dhammānaṃ aggamakkhāyati. Yadidaṃ madanimmadano pipāsavinayo ālayasamugghāto vaṭṭupacchedo(24) taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānaṃ. Ye bhikkhave dhamme pasannā, agge te pasannā. Agge kho pana pasannānaṃ aggo vipāko hoti.

Yāvatā bhikkhave saṅghā vā gaṇā vā, tathāgatasāvakasaṅgho tesaṃ aggamakkhāyati. Yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭhapurisapuggalā esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuṇeyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassa.

[PTS Page 035] [\q 35/] ye bhikkhave saṅghe pasannā, agge te pasannā. Agge kho pana pasannānaṃ aggo vipāko hoti.

Ime kho bhikkhave cattāro aggappasādāti.

80. Aggato ve pasannānaṃ aggaṃ(25) dhammaṃ vijānataṃ,
Agge buddhe
(26) pasannānaṃ dakkhiṇeyye anuttare.

81. Agge dhamme pasannānaṃ virāgūpasame sukhe,
Agge saṅghe pasannānaṃ puññakkhette anuttare.

82. Aggasmiṃ dānaṃ dadataṃ aggaṃ puññaṃ pavaḍḍhati,
Aggaṃ āyuṃ
(27) ca vaṇṇo ca yaso kitti sukhaṃ balaṃ.

83. Aggassa dātā medhāvī aggadhammasamāhito,
Devabhūto manusso vā aggappatto pamodatīti.

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4. 1. 4. 5

( Vassakārasuttaṃ )

35. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā rājagahe viharati veḷuvane kalandakanivāpe.(28) Atha kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sārāṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:

Catūhi kho mayaṃ bho gotama dhammehi samannāgataṃ mahāpaññaṃ mahāpurisaṃ paññapema. Katamehi catūhi?

Idha bho gotama bahussuto hoti tassa tasseva sutajātassa. Tassa tasseva kho pana bhāsitassa atthaṃ jānāti 'ayaṃ imassa bhāsitassa attho, ayaṃ imassa bhāsitassa attho'ti. Satimā kho pana hoti cirakatampi cirabhāsitampi saritā anussaritā. Yāni kho pana tāni gahaṭṭhakāni kiṅkaraṇīyāni, tattha dakkho hoti, analaso tatrūpāyavīmaṃsāya samannāgato alaṃ kātuṃ alaṃ saṃvidhātuṃ. Imehi kho mayaṃ bho gotama catūhi dhammehi samannāgataṃ mahāpaññaṃ mahāpurisaṃ paññapema. Sace pana me bho gotama anumoditabbaṃ, anumodatu me bhavaṃ gotamo. Sace pana me bho gotama paṭikkositabbaṃ, paṭikkosatu(29) me bhavaṃ gotamoti.

Neva kho tyāhaṃ brāhmaṇa anumodāmi. Na pana paṭikkosāmi.

[PTS Page 036] [\q 36/] catūhi kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa dhammehi samannāgataṃ mahāpaññaṃ mahāpurisaṃ paññapemi. Katamehi catūhi?

Idha brāhmaṇa bahujanahitāya paṭipanno hoti bahujanasukhāya bahu'ssa janatā ariye ñāye patiṭṭhāpitā, yadidaṃ kalyāṇadhammatā kusaladhammatā.(30)

So(31) yaṃ vitakkaṃ ākaṅkhati vitakketuṃ. Taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakketi. Yaṃ vitakkaṃ nākaṅkhati vitakketuṃ, na taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakketi. Yaṃ saṅkappaṃ ākaṅkhati saṅkappetuṃ, taṃ(32) saṅkappaṃ saṅkappeti. Yaṃ saṅkappaṃ nākaṅkhati saṅkappetuṃ, na taṃ saṅkappaṃ saṅkappeti. Iti cetovasippatto hoti vitakkapathesu.

Catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ ābhicetasikānaṃ diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārānaṃ nikāmalābhī hoti akicchalābhī akasiralābhī.

Āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati.

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Neva kho tyāhaṃ brāhmaṇa anumodāmi. Na pana paṭikkosāmi. Imehi kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa catūhi dhammehi samannāgataṃ mahāpaññaṃ mahāpurisaṃ paññapemīti.

Acchariyaṃ bho gotama. Abbhutaṃ bho gotama. Yāvasubhāsitaṃ cidaṃ(33) bhotā gotamena. Imehi ca mayaṃ catūhi dhammehi samannāgataṃ bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ dhārema.

Bhavaṃ hi gotamo bahujanahitāya paṭipanno bahujanasukhāya, bahu te janatā ariye ñāye patiṭṭhāpitā yadidaṃ kalyāṇadhammatā kusaladhammatā.(34)

Bhavaṃ hi gotamo yaṃ vitakkaṃ ākaṅkhati vitakketuṃ, taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakketi. Yaṃ vitakkaṃ nākaṅkhati vitakketuṃ, na taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakketi. Yaṃ saṅkappaṃ ākaṅkhati saṅkappetuṃ, taṃ saṅkappaṃ saṅkappeti. Yaṃ saṅkappaṃ nākaṅkhati saṅkappetuṃ, na taṃ saṅkappaṃ saṅkappeti. Bhavaṃ hi gotamo cetovasippatto vitakkapathesu.

Bhavaṃ hi gotamo catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ ābhicetasikānaṃ diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārānaṃ nikāmalābhī akicchalābhī akasiralābhī.

Bhavaṃ hi gotamo āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharatīti.

[PTS Page 037] [\q 37/]

5. addhā kho te brāhmaṇa āsajja upanīyavācā(35) bhāsitā. Api ca tyāhaṃ vyākarissāmi:

Ahaṃ hi brāhmaṇa bahujanahitāya paṭipanno bahujanasukhāya, bahu me janatā ariye ñāye patiṭṭhāpitā yadidaṃ kalyāṇadhammatā kusaladhammatā.

Ahaṃ hi brāhmaṇa yaṃ vitakkaṃ ākaṅkhāmi vitakketuṃ, taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakkemi. Yaṃ vitakkaṃ nākaṅkhāmi vitakketuṃ, na taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakkemi. Yaṃ saṅkappaṃ ākaṅkhāmi saṅkappetuṃ, taṃ saṅkappaṃ saṅkappemi. Yaṃ saṅkappaṃ nākaṅkhāmi saṅkappetuṃ, na taṃ saṅkappaṃ saṅkappemi.

Ahaṃ hi brāhmaṇa cetovasippatto vitakkapathesu. Ahaṃ hi brāhmaṇa catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ ābhicetasikānaṃ diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārānaṃ nikāmalābhī akicchalābhī akasiralābhī.

Ahaṃ hi brāhmaṇa āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmīti.

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84. Yo vedi sabbasattānaṃ maccupāsā pamocanaṃ,(36)
Hitaṃ devamanussānaṃ(37) ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ pakāsayī,
Yaṃ ve
(38) disvā ca sutvā ca pasīdati bahujjano.

85. Maggāmaggassa kusalo katakicco anāsavo,
Buddho antimasārīro mahāpañño mahāpurisoti
(39) vuccatīti.

4. 1. 4. 6.

(Doṇa(loka)suttaṃ(40))

36. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā antarā ca ukkaṭṭhaṃ(41) antarā ca setavyaṃ(42) addhānamaggapaṭipanno hoti. Doṇopi sudaṃ brāhmaṇo antarā ca ukkaṭṭhaṃ antarā ca setavyaṃ(43) addhānamaggapaṭipanno hoti. Addasā(44) kho doṇo brāhmaṇo bhagavato pādesu cakkāni sahassārāni sanemikāni sanābhikāni sabbākāraparipūrāni. Disvānassa etadahosi: "acchariyaṃ vata bho. Abbhutaṃ vata bho na vatimāni manussabhūtassa pādāni bhavissanti" ti.

[PTS Page 038] [\q 38/] atha kho bhagavā maggā okkamma aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisīdi, pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ panidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā.

Atha kho doṇo brāhmaṇo bhagavato pādāni anugacchanto addasa bhagavantaṃ aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisinnaṃ pāsādikaṃ pasādanīyaṃ santindriyaṃ santamānasaṃ uttamadamathasamathamanuppattaṃ(45) dantaṃ guttaṃ saṃyatindriyaṃ(46) nāgaṃ. Disvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:

Devo no bhavaṃ bhavissatīti? Na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa devo bhavissāmīti. Gandhabbo no bhavaṃ bhavissatīti? Na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa gandhabbo bhavissāmīti. Yakkho no bhavaṃ bhavissatīti? Na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa yakkho bhavissāmīti. Manusso no bhavaṃ bhavissatīti? Na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa manusso bhavissāmīti.

Devo no bhavaṃ bhavissatīti iti puṭṭho samāno 'na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa devo bhavissāmī' ti vadesi. Gandhabbo no bhavaṃ bhavissatīti iti puṭṭho samāno'na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa gandhabbo bhavissāmī' ti vadesi. Yakkho no bhavaṃ bhavissatīti iti puṭṭho samāno 'na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa yakkho bhavissāmī'ti vadesi. Manusso no bhavaṃ bhavissatīti iti puṭṭho samāno ' na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa manusso bhavissāmī' ti vadesi. Atha ko(47) carahi bhavaṃ bhavissatīti.

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Yesaṃ kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa āsavānaṃ appahīṇattā devo bhaveyyaṃ, te me āsavā pahīṇā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā. Yesaṃ kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa āsavānaṃ appahīṇattā gandhabbo bhaveyyaṃ, te me āsavā pahīṇā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā. Yesaṃ kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa āsavānaṃ appahīṇattā yakkho bhaveyyaṃ, te me āsavā pahīṇā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā. Yesaṃ kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa āsavānaṃ appahīṇattā manusso bhaveyyaṃ, te me āsavā pahīṇā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā.

Seyyathāpi brāhmaṇa uppalaṃ vā padumaṃ vā puṇḍarīkaṃ vā udake jātaṃ udake saṃvaḍḍhaṃ udakaṃ(48) accuggamma ṭhāti

[PTS Page 039] [\q 39/] anupalittaṃ udakena. Evameva kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa loke jāto loke saṃvaḍḍho lokaṃ abhibhuyya viharāmi anupalitto lokena. Buddhoti maṃ brāhmaṇa dhārehīti.

86. Yena devūpapatyassa gandhabbo vā vihaṅgamo,
Yakkhattaṃ yena gaccheyyaṃ manussattañca abbaje,
(49)
Te mayhaṃ āsavā khīṇā viddhastā vinalīkatā.

87. Puṇḍarīkaṃ yathā vaggu(50) toyena nūpalippati,
Nūpalittomhi
(51) lokena tasmā buddhosmi brāhmaṇāti.

4. 1. 4. 7.

(Aparihāniya suttaṃ)

(Sāvatthinidānaṃ)

37. Catūhi bhikkhave dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu abhabbo parihānāya nibbānasseva santike. Katamehi catūhi?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti, indriyesu guttadvāro hoti, bhojane mattaññū hoti, jāgariyaṃ anuyutto hoti.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sīlavā hoti, pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati, ācāragocarasampanno aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvāro hoti: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānuvyañjanaggāhī yatvādhikaraṇametaṃ cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati. Rakkhati cakkhundriyaṃ. Cakkhundriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati.

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Sotena saddaṃ sutvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānuvyañjanaggāhī

Yatvādhikaraṇametaṃ sotindriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati. Rakkhati sotindriyaṃ sotindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. Ghāṇena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānuvyañjanaggāhī yatvādhikaraṇametaṃ ghāṇindriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati. Rakkhati ghāṇindriyaṃ. Ghāṇindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. Jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānuvyañjanaggāhī yatvādhikaraṇametaṃ jivhindriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati. Rakkhati jivhindriyaṃ. Jivhindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. Kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānuvyañjanaggāhī yatvādhikaraṇametaṃ kāyindriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati. Rakkhati kāyindriyaṃ. Kāyindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. Manasā dhammaṃ viññāya na nimittaggāhī hoti nānuvyañjanaggāhī yatvādhikaraṇametaṃ manindriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā [PTS Page 040] [\q 40/] dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati. Rakkhati manindriyaṃ. Manindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvāro hoti.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu bhojane mattaññū hoti: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso āhāraṃ āhāreti: neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya yāvadeva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāya vihiṃsūparatiyā brahmacariyānuggahāya. Iti purāṇañca vedanaṃ paṭihaṅkhāmi navañca vedanaṃ na uppādessāmi, yātrā ca me(52) bhavissati anavajjatā ca phāsuvihāro cāti. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu bhojane mattaññū hoti.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu jāgariyaṃ anuyutto hoti: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu divasaṃ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodheti, rattiyā paṭhamaṃ yāmaṃ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodheti, rattiyā majjhimaṃ yāmaṃ dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṃ kappeti pāde pādaṃ accādhāya sato sampajāno uṭṭhānasaññaṃ manasi karitvā rattiyā pacchimaṃ yāmaṃ paccuṭṭhāya caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodheti. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu jāgariyaṃ anuyutto hoti.(53)

Imehi kho bhikkhave catūhi dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu abhabbo parihānāya. Nibbānasseva santiketi.

88. Sīle patiṭṭhito bhikkhu indriyesu ca saṃvuto,
Bhojanamhi ca mattaññū jāgariyaṃ anuyuñjati.

89. Evaṃ viharamānāpī(54) ahorattamatandito,(55)
Bhāvayaṃ kusalaṃ dhammaṃ yogakkhemassa pattiyā.

90. Appamādarato bhikkhu pamāde bhayadassi vā,(56)
Abhabbo parihānāya nibbānasseva santiketi.

(Patilīnasuttaṃ)

4. 1. 4. 8.

[PTS Page 041] [\q 41/]

38. panunnapaccekasacco bhikkhave bhikkhu samavayasaṭṭhesano(57) passaddhakāyasaṅkhāro patilīnoti vuccati.

[BJT Page 082] [\x 82/]

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu panunnapaccekasacco hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno yāni tāni, puthusamaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ puthupaccekasaccāni seyyathīdaṃ: sassato lokoti vā asassato lokoti vā antavā lokoti vā anantavā lokoti vā taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīranti vā aññaṃ jīvaṃ aññaṃ sarīranti vā hoti tathāgato parammaraṇāti vā na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇāti vā hoti ca na hoti ca tathāgato parammaraṇāti vā neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇāti vā sabbānissa tāni panunnāni honti, cattāni,(58) vantāni, muttāni, pahīṇāni, paṭinissaṭṭhāni. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu panunnapaccekasacco hoti.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu samavayasaṭṭhesano hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno kāmesanā pahīṇā hoti. Bhavesanā pahīṇā hoti. Brahmacariyesanā paṭippassaddhā. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu samavayasaṭṭhesano hoti.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu passaddhakāyasaṅkhāro hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahāṇā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhaṃ asukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu passaddhakāyasaṅkhāro hoti.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu patilīno hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno asmimāno pahīṇo hoti. Ucchinnamūlo, tālāvatthukato, anabhāvakato, āyatiṃ anuppādadhammo. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu patilīno hoti.

Panunnapaccekasacco bhikkhave bhikkhu samavayasaṭṭhesano passaddhakāyasaṅkhāro patilīnoti vuccatīti.

[PTS Page 042] [\q 42/]

91. kāmesanā bhavesanā brahmacariyesanā saha,(59)
Iti saccaparāmāso diṭṭhiṭṭhānā samussayā.

92. Sabbarāgavirattassa taṇhakkhayavimuttino,
Esanā paṭinissaṭṭhā diṭṭhiṭṭhānaṃ samūhatā.

93. Sa ve santo sato bhikkhu passaddho aparājito,
Mānābhisamayā buddho patilīnoti vuccatīti.

[BJT Page 084] [\x 84/]

4. 1. 4. 9.

( Ujjāyasuttaṃ)

39. Atha kho ujjāyo(60) brāhmaṇo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sārāṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho ujjāyo brāhmaṇo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:

Bhavampi no gotamo yaññaṃ vaṇṇetīti?

Na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa sabbaṃ yaññaṃ vaṇṇemi. Na panāhaṃ brāhmaṇa sabbaṃ yaññaṃ na vaṇṇemi. Yathārūpe kho brāhmaṇa yaññe gāvo haññanti, ajeḷakā haññanti, kukkuṭasūkarā haññanti, vividhā pāṇā saṅghātaṃ āpajjanti, evarūpaṃ kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa sārambhaṃ yaññaṃ na vaṇṇemi. Taṃ kissa hetu? Evarūpaṃ hi brāhmaṇa sārambhaṃ yaññaṃ na upasaṅkamanti arahanto vā arahamaggaṃ(61) vā samāpannā.

Yathārūpe ca kho brāhmaṇa yaññe na gāvo haññanti, na ajeḷakā haññanti, na kukkuṭasūkarā haññanti, na vividhā pāṇā saṅghātaṃ āpajjanti. Evarūpaṃ kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa nirārambhaṃ yaññaṃ vaṇṇemi. Yadidaṃ niccadānaṃ anukūlayaññaṃ. Taṃ kissa hetu: evarūpaṃ hi brāhmaṇa nirārambhaṃ yaññaṃ upasaṅkamanti arahanto vā arahamaggaṃ vā samāpannāti.

94. (62)Assamedhaṃ purisamedhaṃ sammāpāsaṃ vājapeyyaṃ(63)
[PTS Page 043] [\q 43/] niraggalaṃ, Mahāyaññā mahārambhā na te honti mahapphalā.(64)

95. Ajeḷakā ca gāvo ca vividhā yattha haññare,
Na taṃ sammaggatā yaññaṃ upayanti mahesino.

96. Yaṃ ca yaññaṃ(65) nirārambhaṃ yajanti anukulaṃ sadā,
Ajeḷakā ca gāvo ca vividhā nettha haññare.
(66)

97. Taṃ ca sammaggatā yaññaṃ upayanti mahesino,
Etaṃ yajetha medhāvī eso yañño mahapphalo.

98. Etaṃ hi (67) yajamānassa seyyo hoti na pāpiyo,
Yañño ca vipulo hoti pasīdanti ca devatāti.

[BJT Page 086] [\x 86/]

4. 1. 4. 10.

(Udāyīsuttaṃ)

40. Atha kho udāyī brāhmaṇo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sārāṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho udāyī brāhmaṇo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:

Bhavampi no gotamo yaññaṃ vaṇṇetīti?

Na kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa sabbaṃ yaññaṃ vaṇṇemi. Na panāhaṃ brāhmaṇa sabbaṃ yaññaṃ na vaṇṇemi. Yathārūpe kho brāhmaṇa yaññe gāvo haññanti. Ajeḷakā haññanti. Kukkuṭasūkarā haññanti. Vividhā pāṇā saṅghātaṃ āpajjanti. Evarūpaṃ kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa sārambhaṃ yaññaṃ na vaṇṇemi. Taṃ kissa hetu: evarūpaṃ hi brāhmaṇa sārambhaṃ yaññaṃ na upasaṅkamanti arahanto vā arahamaggaṃ vā samāpannā.

Yathārūpe ca kho brāhmaṇa yaññe neva gāvo haññanti. Na ajeḷakā haññanti. Na kukkuṭasūkarā haññanti. Na vividhā pāṇā saṅghātaṃ āpajjanti. Evarūpaṃ kho ahaṃ brāhmaṇa nirārambhaṃ yaññaṃ vaṇṇemi yadidaṃ niccadānaṃ anukūlayaññaṃ. Taṃ kissa hetu: evarūpaṃ hi brāhmaṇa nirārambhaṃ yaññaṃ upasaṅkamanti arahanto vā arahamaggaṃ (68) vā samāpannāti.

99. Abhisaṅkhataṃ nirārambhaṃ yaññaṃ kālena kappiyaṃ,
[PTS Page 044] [\q 44/] tādisaṃ upasaṃyanti
(69) saññatā brahmacārayo.

100. Vivattacchaddā (70) ye loke vītivattā kulaṃ gatiṃ,(71)
Yañña (72) metaṃ pasaṃsanti buddhā puññassa(73) kovidā.

101. Yaññe vā yadi vā saddhe hutaṃ(74) katvā yathārahaṃ,
Pasannacitto yajati
(75) sukhette brahmacārisu.

102. Suhutaṃ suyiṭṭhaṃ suppattaṃ(76) dakkhiṇeyyesu yaṃ kataṃ,
Yañño ca vipulo hoti pasīdanti ca devatā.

103. Evaṃ yajitvā medhāvī saddho muttena cetasā,
Abyāpajjhaṃ sukhaṃ lokaṃ paṇḍito upapajjatīti.

Cakkavaggo catuttho.

Tassuddānaṃ:

Cakko saṅgaho(77) sīho pasādo vassakāreṇa pañcamaṃ,

Loke(78) aparihāniyo patilīnena ujjāyo udāyinā te dasāti.

1.
1[BJTS]= Patirūpe + 1. Paṭirūpe syā:
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

2.
2[BJTS]= ariyacittakaro + 2. Ariyamittakaro syā:
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

3.
3[BJTS]= cetādhivattatīti + 3. Cetaṃ dhivattati syā: sīmu.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

4.
4[BJTS]= peyyavajjaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= peyyavajjaṃ + 1 S.T. peyyogaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

5.
5[BJTS]= Samānattatā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Samānattatā + 2 B. K. Samānattaka; S. D. Samānattanā ca.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

6.
6[BJTS]= ca
[ChS]=
[PTS]= ca + 3 B. K. omits ca.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

7.
7[BJTS]= dhammesu
[ChS]=
[PTS]= dhammesu + 4 B. K. S. T. have ca before dhammesu.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

8.
8[BJTS]= rathassāṇīva
[ChS]=
[PTS]= rathass`āṇī va + 5 S. T. rathassāṇī; S. D. āṇī ca.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

9.
9[BJTS]= nāssu
[ChS]=
[PTS]= nāssu + 6 S. S. nāssu ; B. K. nassu.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

10.
10[BJTS]= saṅgahā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= saṅgahā + 7 B. K. saṅgahā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

11.
11[BJTS]= mahattaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= mahattaṃ + 8 B. K. mahattaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

12.
12[BJTS]= Dakaṃ dakāsayā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Dakaṃ dakāsayā + 1 B. K. udkaṃ udakāsayā
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

13.
13[BJTS]= pakkhino
[ChS]=
[PTS]= pakkhino + 2 S. Tr. , reads pakkhiṇo.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

14.
14[BJTS]= baddhā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= baddhā + 3 S. Tr. bandhā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

15.
15[BJTS]= sañchinditvā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= sañchinditvā + 4 B. K. sañchindditvā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

16.
16[BJTS]= sukhabahulā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= sukhabhūtā + 5 B. K. bahulā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

17.
17[BJTS]= Addhuvā vata kira
[ChS]=
[PTS] Addhuvā kira + 6 B. K. vata.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

18.
18[BJTS]= sassatamhā'ti amaññimha.
[ChS]=
[PTS]= sassatamhā'ti amaññimha. + 7 B. K. sassatamhā'ti amaññimha.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

19.
19[BJTS]= Mayampi
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Mayampi + 8 B. K. omits pi.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

20.
20[BJTS]= sakkāyaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= sakkāyaṃ + 1 S. D. sakko yaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

21.
21[BJTS]= 1 Udakaṃ udakāsayā machasaṃ ( no reference is given on this page to this footnote)
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

22.
22[BJTS]= nevasaññīnāsaññino
[ChS]=
[PTS]= nevasaññīnāsaññino + 2 S. S. nevasaññino nāsaññino
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

23.
23[BJTS]= asaṅkhatā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= asaṅkhatā + 3 B. K. inserts vā asaṅkhatā vā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

24.
24[BJTS]= vaṭṭupacchedo
[ChS]=
[PTS]= vaṭṭupacchedo + 4 S. D. , S. T. vaddhūpacchedo .
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

25.
25[BJTS]= aggaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= aggaṃ + 1 S. S. aggaṃ ; B.K. agga.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

26.
26[BJTS]= Agge buddhe
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Agge buddhe + 2 S. D. Agge subuddhe.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

27.
27[BJTS]= āyuṃ + 1. Āyu ca: machasaṃ.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

28.
28[BJTS]= kalandakanivāpe
[ChS]=
[PTS]= kalandakanivāpe + 3 B. K. kalankanivāpe.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

29.
29[BJTS]= paṭikkosatu
[ChS]=
[PTS]= paṭikkosatu pana + 4 B. K. omits pana.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

30.
30[BJTS]= kusaladhammatā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= kusaladhammatā + 1 B. K. dhammatāya.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

31.
31[BJTS]= So
[ChS]=
[PTS]= So + 2 S. D. read yo; S. Tr. has so.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

32.
32[BJTS]= taṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= taṃ + 3 S. T. na.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

33.
33[BJTS]= cidaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= c`idaṃ + 4 B. K. hidaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

34.
34[BJTS]= kusaladhammatā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= kusaladhammatā + 5 Tr. , S. T. kusaladhammatāya.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

35.
35[BJTS]= upanīyavācā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= upanīyavācā + 1 S. D. vākhā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

36.
36[BJTS]= pamocanaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= pamocanaṃ + 2 S. Tr., pāsāa pamocanaṃ; B. K. pāsappamocanaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

37.
37[BJTS]= devamanussānaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= devamanussānaṃ + 3 S. D. hīnto va manussānaṃ; S. T. hintova manussānaṃ
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

38.
38[BJTS]= Yaṃ ve
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Yaṃ ve + 4 B. K., S. T. , S. D. Yaṃ ve; S. Tr. Yañ ce.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

39.
39[BJTS]= mahāpañño mahāpurisoti
[ChS]=
[PTS]= mahāpañño mahāpuriso ti + 5 MSS. mahāpañño mahāpuriso. See Dh. 352.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

40.
40[BJTS]= suttaṃ + *Uddāne 'loke' ti suttanāmaṃ.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

41.
41[BJTS]= ukkaṭṭhaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= ukkaṭṭhaṃ + 6 S. T. ukkaṭṭhuṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

42.
42[BJTS]= setavyaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= setavyaṃ + 7 B. K. , S. Tr. setavyaṃ; S. D. setabbyaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

43.
43[BJTS]= setavyaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= setavyaṃ + 7 B. K. , S. Tr. setavyaṃ; S. D. setabbyaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

44.
44[BJTS]= Addasā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Addasā + 8 B. K. adassa.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

45.
45[BJTS]= uttamadamathasamathamanuppattaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= uttamadamathasamatham anuppattaṃ + 1 S. Tr. uttamadamathasamatham anuppattaṃ taṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

46.
46[BJTS]= saṃyatindriyaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= saṃyatindriyaṃ + 2 S. S., B. K. santindriyaṃ; S. D. santindriyaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

47.
47[BJTS]= ko
[ChS]=
[PTS]= ko + 3 B. K. omits kho.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

48.
48[BJTS]= udakaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= udakaṃ + 4 S. M. udake accuggamma ṭhāti; S. Tr. accuggamma ṭhāti; B. K. udakā accuggamma ṭhati
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

49.
49[BJTS]= abbaje + 1. Abbhaje syā. Aṇḍaje sīmu.
[ChS]=
[PTS]= abbaje + S.Tr. aṇḍje; MSS. abbaje.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

50.
50[BJTS]= vaggu + 2. Uggaṃ syā.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

51.
51[BJTS]= Nūpalittomhi + 3. Kupalippāmi syā. Machasaṃ nūpalimpāti ka.
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Nūpalittomhi + B. K. upalimpati.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

52.
52[BJTS]= yātrā ca me
[ChS]=
[PTS]= yātrā ca me + B. K. yatrā ca me.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

53.
53[BJTS]= hoti
[ChS]=
[PTS]= hoti + 2 See M. N. 53, pp. 354-5. ???
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

54.
54[BJTS]= viharamānāpī
[ChS]=
[PTS]= viharamāno pi + 3 S. T., S. Tr. , S. D. viharamānāpi; B. K. vihārī ātāpi.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

55.
55[BJTS]= viharamānāpī ahorattamatandito + 1. Viharamāno pi sīmu. Vihārī ātāpi machasaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

56.
56[BJTS]= bhayadassi vā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= bhayadassi vā + B. K. bhayadassāvī.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

57.
57[BJTS]= samavayasaṭṭhesano + 2. Samavayasaccesano sīmu:
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

58.
58[BJTS]= cattāni
[ChS]=
[PTS]= cattāni + 1 B. K. Sabbāni cassa tāni nunnāni honti panunnāni cattāni.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

59.
59[BJTS]= saha
[ChS]=
[PTS]= saha + 1 S. Tr.., S. D. saha; S. T., S. M. , S. Com. sahā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

60.
60[BJTS]= ujjāyo
[ChS]=
[PTS]= ujjāyo + 2 S. D. ajjāyo; S. Tr. ujjāyo.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

61.
61[BJTS]= arahamaggaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= arahamaggaṃ + 3 B. K. arahattamaggaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

62.
62[BJTS]=
[ChS]=
[PTS]= + 4 These verses recur Saṃyutta III. 1. 9.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

63.
63[BJTS]= vājapeyyaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= vājapeyyaṃ + 5 B. K. vājapeyyaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

64.
64[BJTS]= niraggalaṃ, Mahāyaññā mahārambhā na te honti mahapphalā
[ChS]=
[PTS]= niraggalaṃ, Mahāyaññā mahārambhā na te honti mahapphalā + 1 S. S. Niraggalaṃ mahāyaññā mahārambhā na te honti mahapphalā
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

65.
65[BJTS]= yaññaṃ + 1. Ye ca yaññā ma. Cha. Saṃ.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

66.
66[BJTS]= nettha haññare
[ChS]=
[PTS]= n`ettha haññare + S. S. yattha na haññare.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

67.
67[BJTS]= Etaṃ hi + 2. Evaṃ syā.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

68.
68[BJTS]= arahamaggaṃ + 1. Arahattamaggaṃ vā machasaṃ.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

69.
69[BJTS]= upasaṃyanti
[ChS]=
[PTS]= upasaṃyanti + 1 B. K. upasaṃkanti.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

70.
70[BJTS]= Vivattacchaddā + 2. Vivaṭṭacchadā machasaṃ.
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Vivattacchaddā + 2 S. D. , s. T. nivattacchaddā; B. K. vivaṭacchaddā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

71.
71[BJTS]= vītivattā kulaṃ gatiṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= vītivattākālamgatī + 3 S. D., S. T. vītivattakathaṅkathī; S. Tr. vītivattakulaṃ gatiṃ; B. K. vītivattākulagatiṃ; S. M. vivattacchaddā; S. Com. vītivattā kālagatī.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

72.
72[BJTS]= Yañña + 3. Havyaṃ syā.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

73.
73[BJTS]= puññassa + 4. Yaññassa kovidā machasaṃ.
[ChS]=
[PTS]=
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

74.
74[BJTS]= hutaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= bhavyaṃ + 4 S. D., S. T. bhaveyya; B. K. haccaṃ katvā.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

75.
75[BJTS]= yajati
[ChS]=
[PTS]= yajati + 5 B. K. Pasannacittā yajanti.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

76.
76[BJTS]= suyiṭṭhaṃ suppattaṃ
[ChS]=
[PTS]= suyiṭṭhaṃ suppattaṃ + 6 B. K. suyiṭṭhaṃ sampattaṃ.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

77.
77[BJTS]= saṅgaho
[ChS]=
[PTS]= saṅgaho + 7 B. K. saṅgaho.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=

78.
78[BJTS]= Loke
[ChS]=
[PTS]= Loke + 8 S. S. loke; B. K. Doṇo.
[Thai]=
[Kambodian]=